Listening is giving attention lớn a sound. When listening, a person hears what others are saying and tries lớn understand what it means.
Listening involves complex affective, cognitive, and behavioral processes. Affective processes include the motivation lớn listen lớn others; cognitive processes include attending lớn, understanding, receiving, and interpreting nội dung and relational messages; and behavioral processes include responding lớn others with verbal and nonverbal feedback.
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Listening is a skill for resolving problems. Poor listening can lead lớn misinterpretations, thus causing conflict or dispute. Poor listening can be exhibited by excessive interruptions, inattention, hearing what you want lớn hear, mentally composing a response, or having a closed mind.
Listening is also linked lớn memory. According lớn one study, when there were background noises during a speech, listeners were better able lớn recall the information in the speech when hearing those noises again. For example, when a person reads or does something else while listening lớn music, he or she can recall what that was when hearing the music again later.
Listening also functions rhetorically as a means of promoting cross-culture communication. Ratcliffe built her argument upon two incidents in which individuals demonstrated a tendency lớn refuse the cross-cultural discourses.[clarification needed]
What is listening?
Listening differs from obeying. A person who receives and understands information or an instruction, and then chooses not lớn comply with it or not lớn agree lớn it, has listened lớn the speaker, even though the result is not what the speaker wanted.
Listening begins by hearing a speaker producing the sound lớn be listened lớn. A semiotician, Roland Barthes, characterized the distinction between listening and hearing. "Hearing is a physiological phenomenon; listening is a psychological act." People are always hearing, most of the time subconsciously. Listening is done by choice. It is the interpretative action taken by someone in order lớn understand, and potentially make sense of, something they hear.
How does one listen?
Listening may be considered as a simple and isolated process, but it would be more precise lớn perceive it as a complex and systematic process. It involves the perception of sounds made by the speaker, of intonation patterns that focus on the information, and of the relevance of the topic under discussion.
People listen for 45 percent of their time when they communicate.
According lớn Barthes, listening can be understood on three levels: alerting, deciphering, and understanding how the sound is produced and how it affects the listener.
- The first level involves detection of environmental sound cues. Certain places have certain sounds associated with them. For example, a trang chủ has certain sounds associated with it that makes it familiar and comfortable lớn the occupant. An intrusion—a sound that is not familiar (e.g., a squeaking door or floorboard, a breaking window)—alerts whoever lives there lớn potential danger.
- The second level involves detecting patterns when interpreting sounds; for example, a child waiting for the sound of his mother's return trang chủ. In this scenario the child is waiting lớn pick up on sound cues (e.g., jingling keys, the turn of the doorknob, etc.) that signal his mother's approach.
- The third level means knowing how what one says will affect another. This sort of listening is important in psychoanalysis, the study of the unconscious mind. According lớn Barthes, the psychoanalyst must suspend judgment while listening lớn the patient in order lớn communicate with the latter's unconscious without bias. In the same way, lúc lắc listeners must suspend judgment when listening lớn others.
All three levels of listening function within the same plane[clarification needed], and sometimes all at once. The second and third levels overlap and intertwine, in that obtaining, understanding, and deriving meaning are part of the same process. In this way anyone, on hearing a doorknob turn (obtaining), can almost automatically assume that someone is at the door (deriving meaning).
Active listening involves listening lớn what is being said and attempting lớn understand it. It can be described in many ways. Active listening requires that the listener be attentive, nonjudgmental, and non-interrupting. An active listener analyzes what the speaker is saying for its implicature or subtext as well as for meanings contained explicitly in the verbal communication. An active listener looks for nonverbal messages from the speaker in order lớn comprehend the full meaning of what is being said. Active listening has many benefits. It is more effective listening. It also strengthens one's leadership skills.
Active listening is an exchange between two or more individuals. If they are active listeners, the quality of the conversation will be better and clearer. Active listeners connect with each other on a deeper level[clarification needed] in their conversations. Active listening can create a deeper, more positive relationship between individuals.
Active listening changes the speaker's perspective. Active listening is a catalyst in one's personal growth, which enhances[specify] personality change and group development. People will more likely listen lớn themselves if someone else is allowing them lớn speak and get their message across.
Active listening allows people lớn be present in a conversation. "Listening is a key factor in cultivating relationships because the more we understand the other person, the more connection we create, as taught in nonviolent-communication Dharma teachings. As someone recently stated, 'We should listen harder phàn nàn we speak.'"
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In language learning
Along with speaking, reading, and writing, listening is one of the "four skills" of language learning. All language-teaching approaches, except for grammar translation, incorporate a listening component. Some teaching methods, such as total physical response, involve students simply listening and responding.
In "intensive listening" learners attempt lớn listen with maximum accuracy lớn a relatively brief sequence of speech; in "extensive listening" learners listen lớn lengthy passages for general comprehension. While intensive listening may be more effective for developing specific aspects of listening ability, extensive listening is more effective in building fluency and maintaining learner motivation.
People are usually not conscious of how they listen in their first, or native, language unless they encounter difficulty. A research project focused on facilitating language learning found that L2 (second language) learners, in the process of listening, make conscious use of whatever strategies they unconsciously use in their first language, such as inferring, selective attention, or evaluation.
Factors activated in speech perception include phonetic quality, prosodic patterns, pausing, and tốc độ of input. These all influence the comprehensibility of listening input. A common store of semantic information (single)[clarification needed] in memory is used in both first- and second-language speech comprehension, but research has found separate stores of phonological information (dual)[clarification needed] for speech. Semantic knowledge required for language understanding (scripts[ambiguous] and schemata related lớn real-world people, places, and actions) is accessed through phonological tagging of whatever language is heard.
In a study, involving 93 participants, investigating the relationship between second-language listening and a range of tasks, it was discovered that listening anxiety was a major obstacle lớn developing tốc độ and explicitness in second-language listening tasks. Additional research explored whether listening anxiety and comprehension are related, and as the investigators expected they were negatively correlated.
Krista Ratcliffe contended that much literacy teaching in the U.S. emphasizes classical Western rhetorical theory that foregrounds speaking and writing but ignores listening. These theories mainly focus on how the rhetor's speech can persuade the audience. The goal of classical rhetoric studies was lớn address what the audience should listen for, rather phàn nàn how they listen.
Shari Stenberg extended this perspective lớn explicate the absence of listening in the academe.
Western teaching methods maintained the inherited rhetorical Greek noun logos, which means reasoning and logic, while ignoring its verb legein that refers lớn speaking as well as, in etymological term, lớn lay down, lớn listen. Listening may occur within two different stances: the divided logos and the restored logos. These differ in how they (re)shape the functions and outcomes of listening. The hearer listens in the divided logos while simultaneously producing their responses lớn the speaker. Whereas within the restored logos, the listener exploits the listening time lớn live in someone's else experiences, then reflect on, and make meanings, lớn offer a response.
An example of divided logos was Aristotle's theory. Despite its concern with teaching students the oral discourse that mandates listening lớn produce and analyze enthymemes, listening was displaced and diminished. The attention given lớn speaking without listening "perpetuates a homogenized mode of speech based on competition rather phàn nàn dialogue." Ratcliffe attributed this listening neglect lớn Western cultural biases that are represented as: 1) speaking is gendered as masculine while listening as feminine; 2) Listening is subjugated lớn ethnicity: white people speak while people of color listen; in other words, in cross-cultural relationships, there is one superior thành viên in the conversation who does not need lớn listen as closely;[clarification needed] 3) Western culture prefers lớn depend on sight, not sound, as its primary interpretative trope.
Defining rhetorical listening
Ratcliffe encouraged language scholars lớn adopt listening as a novel strategy for deriving meaning and comprehending discourses related lớn gender and race. The primary objective was lớn facilitate cross-cultural conversations. Ratcliffe defined rhetorical listening as a technique for creative interpretation, originating from a space within language where listeners can assert their influence.: 204 This approach utilizes listening as a tool lớn gain insight into the perspectives and voices of others, promoting interpretation, reflection, and the creation of fresh significance. To this over, Ratcliffe asserted that rhetorical listening embodies an “stance of openness that a person may choose lớn assume in relation lớn any person, text, or culture.” As an outcome of this openness, Ratcliffe claimed that rhetorical listening cultivates conscious willingness in people, thereby fostering effective communication, particularly in cross-cultural settings.
Steven Pedersen highlights the negative impact on communcation of stereotypes and prejudices, which cause dis-identification. Conversely, rhetorical listening promotes cross-cultural understanding and allows students and teachers lớn disrupt reciprocal resistance[jargon].
Rhetorical listening requires an attentive consideration of individuals' intentions lớn seek understanding, which surpasses mere passive listening. Stenberg cautioned against interpretative limitations that may arise from such intentions. Within the framework of rhetorical listening, the term "understanding" metaphorically transforms into "standing under"—encompassing a comprehensive view of various perspectives. This vantage point allows for the (re)conceptualization of one's own ideas and ethics. Instead of merely accumulating others' ideas, people cultivate these ideas, thereby enhancing their language skills and evolving their perspectives, ultimately paving the way for new responses[clarification needed].
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Practicing rhetorical listening in the classroom
Based on Krista Ratcliffe's work on rhetorical listening, Meagan Rodgers developed the intent/effect tactic as one way for students lớn practice rhetorical listening in the English composition classroom. The application of this tool is meant lớn disrupt racially discriminatory stereotypes and utterances. Rodgers found in her classroom-based research that even if a person does not perceive themselves lớn be racist, racism or racial stereotypes are subconsciously perpetuated when a majority/dominant group agrees with[clarification needed] or laughs at racial differences of a minority group thành viên. Rather phàn nàn confronting students and jeopardizing their willingness lớn participate in classroom discussions, the intent/effect strategy invites students lớn (1) consider numerous perspectives of a statement, and (2) understand that well-meant comments (intent) can be perceived as deleterious (effect) by others.
Another strategy for teachers lớn practice rhetorical listening and improve cultural sensitivity in the classroom is by applying practices from Deaf Studies. This kind of listening pedagogy requires students (1) lớn be attentive and reduce distracting noises; (2) share their story, including their cultural background, ví that classmates can be familiar with their perspective; (3) engage in “critical dialogue” in order lớn understand others; and (4) pay attention lớn their classmates’ body toàn thân language and the messages it sends.
Rhetorical listening in the classroom can also be used lớn shed more light onto why students are silent. Janice Cools discusses several reasons for silence in the ESL/ELL composition classroom, such as students holding back their wisdom on purpose lớn avoid being harassed by peers and instructors for giving a wrong answer. The fear and doubt that can result from this type of response might lead lớn feelings of incompetence and discomfort in an individual and cause them lớn continue in silence in the classroom. A further reason why students choose silence is because they were taught lớn be silent, especially at the secondary school level in some cultures, e.g. Puerto Rico. Cools suggests asking students in writing why they are (not) silent in their classes, "how [they] interpret other students' silences [...] and what a professor should infer from [students'] silence." Students answered that silence can be beneficial as it shows their focus on the material, gives them an opportunity lớn get lớn know a different perspective while listening lớn their peers, and allows them lớn reflect and process questions. Moreover, discussions can be perceived as interruption because classmates vì thế not have expert knowledge. Cools concludes that silence in the classroom should be appreciated and respected.
- Appreciative listening
- Auditory agnosia
- Auditory processing disorder
- Dialogic listening
- Informational listening
- Workplace listening
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