nh42co3 + hcl

Ammonium carbonate is colourless powdered compound with ammonia smell. Hydrogen Chloride is colourless solution with pungent smell. Let us study reaction between them in detail.

(NH4)2CO3 consist of ammonium and carbonate ion, also known as Baker’s Ammonia and is combustible in nature. HCl is highly acidic and it is also referred lớn as muriatic acid.

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We will discuss some of the characteristics of this hydrochloric acid and ammonium carbonate reaction, lượt thích intermolecular forces, balancing equation, redox reaction and product formed during the reaction.

What is the product of HCl and (NH4)2CO3?

The reaction HCl + (NH4)2CO3 gives ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water molecule as products.

(NH4)2CO3 + 2HCl → 2NH4Cl + CO2 + H2O

What type of reaction is HCl + (NH4)2CO3?

The reaction of HCl + (NH4)2CO3 is a double-displacement reaction.

Double displacement Reaction

How lớn balance HCl + (NH4)2CO3

The reaction HCl + (NH4)2CO3 is balanced using hit and trial method. Below are steps-

  • Note down the number of moles present as shown.
  • Hydrogen, oxygen and ammonium ion is unequal on both sides, they are balanced by multiplying 2 with HCl as well as ammonium chloride.  
Ammonium ion21
Balancing Table
  • Thus, the overall balanced equation is-
  • (NH4)2CO3 + 2HCl → 2NH4Cl + CO2 + H2O

HCl + (NH4)2CO3 titration

HCl + (NH4)2CO3 titration is strong acid versus weak base titration.


Burette, pipette, conical flask, round bottom flask, burette stand.


Phenolphthalein is used as indicator.


  • Fill burette with a standardized hydrochloric acid solution and ammonium carbonate in conical flask followed by addition of phenolphthalein indicator.
  • On titrating it with hydrochloric acid color of solution in flask will disappear.
  • This color change point is ending point.
  • Then the volume of NH4Cl is found using the formula V1S1=V2S2.

HCl + (NH4)2CO3 net ionic equation

The net ionic equation of HCl + (NH4)2CO3 is derived using the following steps.

2H+(aq) + 2NH4+(aq) + CO32-(aq) =  2NH4+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

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  • Write the balanced molecular equation.
  • (NH4)2CO3 + 2HCl → 2NH4Cl + CO2 + H2O
  • Write the states for each substance.
  • (NH4)2CO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) → 2NH4Cl(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
  • Strong electrolytes which are already broken down into ions are further crossed as spectator ions present on either sides of complete ionic equation.
  • 2H+(aq) + 2Cl(aq) + 2NH4+(aq) + CO32-(aq) =  2NH4+(aq) + 2Cl(aq)+ CO2(g) + H2O(l)
  • Followed by that the net ionic equation is written with remaining ions.
  • 2H+(aq) + 2NH4+(aq) + CO32-(aq) =  2NH4+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

HCl + (NH4)2CO3 conjugate pairs

The conjugate pairs for HCl + (NH4)2CO3 are-

  • Cl is the conjugate base of strong acid HCl after donating a proton.
  • Ammonium carbonate is an acid- base conjugate pair, where the acid is NH4OH and the base is H2CO3. Conjugate acid and base pairs are formed after its ionization as shown below.
  • (NH4)2CO3(s) = NH4+ (aq) + HCO3(aq)

HCl and (NH4)2CO3 intermolecular forces

The intermolecular forces between HCl and (NH4)2CO3 are-

  • Dipole-dipole and London dispersion forces present in HCl.
  • Ammonium carbonate contains all type of bonds i.e., ionic, covalent as well as coordinate bond.

HCl + (NH4)2CO3 reaction enthalpy

Reaction enthalpy for HCl + (NH4)2CO3 cannot be calculated directly as the reaction between hydrogen chloride and ammonium carbonate is an equilibrium reaction.

Is HCl + (NH4)2CO3 a buffer solution

HCl + (NH4)2CO3 cannot khuông buffer as HCl is strong acid which completely get dissociated in solution.

Is HCl + (NH4)2CO3 a complete reaction

HCl+ (NH4)2CO3 is a complete reaction. Here, equal moles of (NH4)2CO3 (a weak base) and HCl (a strong acid), completely neutralize each other and produce the ammonium ion NH4+.

Is HCl + (NH4)2CO3 an exothermic or endothermic reaction

HCl + (NH4)2CO3 is an exothermic reaction as heat is released during the reaction.

Is HCl + (NH4)2CO3 a redox reaction

HCl + (NH4)2CO3 is not a redox reaction. Here, the oxidation states of multiple atoms did not change during the reaction.

Is HCl + (NH4)2CO3 a precipitation reaction

HCl + (NH4)2CO3 is not precipitation reaction as no solid product is produced in this reaction.

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Is HCl + (NH4)2CO3 reversible or irreversible reaction

HCl + (NH4)2CO3 is an irreversible reaction since the product cannot be converted back further into reactants.

Is HCl + (NH4)2CO3 displacement reaction

HCl + (NH4)2CO3 is not a displacement reaction, as there is not a single replacement, instead they khuông a salt, ammonium chloride and water.    


Ammonium carbonate is used as a leavening agent, in ceramic and plastic industries. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is commonly used for the neutralization of alkaline agents, as a bleaching agent, in food, textile, metal, and rubber industries.